Arginine was discovered by Ernst Schulze, a Swiss chemist who first isolated it from a lupine seedling extract back in 1886. Later on, in 1895, this amino acid was recognized as a component of casein and appeared to be widely distributed in various food and feed.
IUPAC Name: (2S)-2-Amino-5-(diaminomethylideneamino)pentanoic acid
Symbol: Three-letter code - Arg. One-letter code - R
Molecular Weight (Molar Mass): 174.20096 g/mol
Molecular Formula (Structural Formula): C6H14N4O2
Canonical SMILES: C(CC(C(=O)O)N)CN=C(N)N
Isomeric SMILES: C(C[C@@H](C(=O)O)N)CN=C(N)N
InChIKey Identifier: ODKSFYDXXFIFQN-SMLZDNMQDI
CAS Number: 74-79-3
MDL Number: MFCD00002635
Melting point: 223 °C
Solubility in water: 148,7 g/L (20 °C); pKa - 2,17; pKb - 9,04
2D Molfile: Get the molfile
3D PDB file: Get the PDB file
Other names: (S)-2-Amino-5-guanidinopentanoic acid; L-(+)-Arginine; S-(+)-Arginine
You can benefit from Arginine in different ways. For example, it plays an important role in the cell division and in the immune functioning. In addition, it helps healing wounds, release hormones, and remove ammonia from your body. This amino acid is proved to be a precursor of nitric oxide, which, as you know, causes a blood vessel relaxation. Therefore, through the nitric oxide (NO) it becomes a mediator in different biological systems. In addition, Arginine is an intermediate in the urea cycle, cleaved into ornithine and urea.
Arginine may be useful under many body conditions, including colds, high blood pressure, migraines, congestive heart failure, and even erectile dysfunction, mail infertility and sexual dysfunction in women. Many people use Arginine in order to boost up the immune system and to improve the athletic performance - this amino acid is known for aiding in bodybuilding. The others use it to faster recover after surgery.
Researches have been performed to prove that Arginine is effective for managing the inflammation of the bladder. This amino acid is also known to be effective in relieving leg cramping and weakness, both conditions caused by blocked arteries (intermittent claudication). Besides, Arginine can improve kidney function in kidney transplant patients who take cyclosporine. Finally, taking an additional amount of Arginine combined with ribonucleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid will help reduce recovery time and protect you against infection. That is why this amino acid is known for promoting wound healing after surgery.
A number of independent studies revealed that an increasing intake of food containing Arginine may help ease symptoms of angina and improve blood vessel functioning in ill people. Meanwhile, NIH points out that the scale has not yet been developed to rate the effectiveness of Arginine in relieving cold, migraines, dementia, and high blood pressure, as well as male infertility.